Mais quelles étaient les caractéristiques de cette domination ? Ainsi, dans leur volonté de conquêtes, les états européens on administré des régions entières de l'Afrique. [24], Colonisers viewed this violence as necessary and good because it shaped the African into a productive worker. France established two large colonial federations in Africa, French West Africa and French Equatorial Africa. In Kenya, whites had evicted African tenant farmers in the 1930s; since the '40s there has been conflict, which intensified in 1952. Archives sensibles et colonisation en Afrique et en Europe : enjeux communicationnels . Ainsi, certains incidents (comme au Soudan, à la fin du XIXe siècle entre la France et la Grande-Bretagne, ou encore au Maroc dans la première moitié du XXe siècle entre la France et l'Allemagne) auraient pu déboucher sur des conflits, de même que l'annexion de l'Éthiopie par l'Italie en 1936. The natives, who were portrayed as uncivilised by the Europeans, were excluded from the rights of citizenship. European enclaves in North Africa before 1830, Historical Legacies and African Development, Germany Refuses to Apologize for Herero Holocaust, Postcolonialism (international relations), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colonisation_of_Africa&oldid=993360969, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias (2020-03-01). In the Abushiri revolt, the Germans were almost driven out of the area in 1888. He opines that as Europe was being developed, Africa was being underdeveloped through the resources taken. By 1955, Britain had suppressed the revolt, and by 1960 Britain accepted the principle of African majority rule. En Afrique actuellement, l’élan issu de la polis dans sa vision du monde a été plombé par le choc de la rencontre entre les peuples africains et le monde occidental. Those who are deemed Abject are often avoided by others, and seen as inferior. In the case of colonialism, she argues that it is used by the west to dominate over and control the indigenous population of Africa. Under Egypt's Pharaoh Amasis (570–526 BC) a Greek mercantile colony was established at Naucratis, some 50 miles from the later Alexandria. Sept. 11, 2020. No_Favorite. Cheikh Hamahoullah, homme de foi et resistant : Islam et colonisation en Afrique / Alioune Traore Maisonneuve et Larose Paris 1983. Technical superiority enabled conquest and control. Get PDF (420 KB) Abstract. 6, No. 2020-08-31T19:09:04Z tag:theconversation.com,2011:article/145057 2020-08-31T19:09:04Z 2020-08-31T19:09:04Z Les investissements, cependant, profitent peu à l'Afrique noire, étant plutôt destinés au Maghreb : l'investissement français, par exemple, fut plus faible en Afrique que dans le reste du monde. After the third and final war between them, the Third Punic War (150–146 BC), Rome completely destroyed Carthage. Enfin, les fonctionnaires autochtones ne se voyaient confier que des responsabilités de très bas niveau, les autres postes étant aux mains des Européens. On the Postcolony has faced criticism from academics such as Meredith Terreta for focusing too much on specific African nations such as Cameroon. Quelles furent ses faiblesses et ses erreurs ? This form of colonisation is a form a secondary succession. Les relations entre les puissances européennes à propos de l'Afrique au to… [27] Echoes of this criticism can also be found when looking at the work of Mamdani with his theories questioned for generalising across an Africa that, in reality, was colonised in very different ways, by fundamentally different European imperial ideologies. [25], Brown discusses how the colonial authorities were only concerned with constructing a working sewage system to cater for the colonials themselves, and weren’t concerned with the Ugandan population. De manière générale, on peut dire que l'économie coloniale a été bénéfique à l'Europe (notamment en amortissant la crise de 1929) mais n'a pas constitué un élément déterminant pour son développement économique, beaucoup d'affaires ayant finalement été peu rentables. Critical theory on the colonisation of Africa is largely unified in a condemnation of imperial activities. Africans also noticed the unequal evidence of gratitude they received for their efforts to support Imperialist countries during the world wars.[16]. De même, les universités, censées éduquer et donc civiliser un grand nombre d'autochtones n'ont pu conduire à l'émergence que de quelque élites (comme Léopold Sédar Senghor, agrégé de grammaire) mais n'ont pas profité à la majorité de la population. Les progrès en médecine; Les Guerres et les conquêtes de l'Asie du sud-est; La colonisation de la polynésie et de l'océanie; Les conquêtes et les guerres en Afrique; La conquête des mers; L'exploration de l'Afrique ; La Révolution Anglaise de 1642 - The English Civil War; La Révolution Française de 1789 - The French Revolution of 1789 The Carthaginians themselves sent out expeditions to explore and establish colonies along Africa's Atlantic coast. [25], Brown describes Abjection as the process whereby one group others or dehumanizes another. Nevertheless, in 1959 France amended the constitution to allow other colonies this option. The theory of colonialism addresses the problems and consequences of the colonisation of a country, and there has been much research conducted exploring these concepts. '"[8] The British by contrast sought to rule by identifying local power holders and encouraging or forcing these to administer for the British Empire. Traore, Alioune. A significant early proponent of colonizing inland was King Leopold of Belgium, who oppressed the Congo as his own private domain until 1908. Mbembe's theorization of violence in the colony illuminates the unequal relationship between the coloniser and colonised and reminds us of the violence inflicted on African bodies throughout the process of colonisation. EMBED. Le plus net progrès fut celui de la médecine. Kenya became independent three years later. The  reactions of disgust and displeasure to dirt and uncleanliness are often linked social norms and the wider cultural context, shaping the way in which Africa is still thought of today. ...Colonisation of a wasteland is the plant succession which occurs in an urban area which has been abandoned or untouched for 5 years. Cependant, les principales limites politiques étaient le manque de droits civiques et syndicaux. Mbembe demonstrates that violence in the postcolony is cruder and more generally for the purpose of demonstrating raw power. Quels progrès sociaux la colonisation a-t-elle apporté en Afrique ? Les colons, dont l'intérêt était d'éradiquer les épidémies, ont construit des Instituts Pasteur, hôpitaux et dispensaires. De vrais progrès ont été apportés, comme en médecine ou encore dans le développement des transports et la réduction des famines mais ceux-ci étaient souvent limités, comme dans le domaine éducatif ou du développement industriel. He includes a gendered analysis and states the rights of African women were further diminished during colonialism. 94. 8 Whereas in East and southern Africa, the focus of colonial concern was erosion, in Sahelian Africa it was deforestation and desertification. Mbembe is one of the most prominent writers within the field and this has led to his work being reviewed by numerous academics. Mahmood Mamdani wrote his book Citizen and Subject in 1996. Ainsi, la Conférence de Berlin impose une liberté totale du commerce, pour lequel tout est mis en œuvre. Par ailleurs, de graves manquements aux Droits de l'Homme ont eu lieu. Parti politique TO BOYI COLONISATION, Eza pona to bimissa Mboka na bisso na kati ya ordre na systeme coloniale oyo eza ko sala tei to bima na passi te. There was also an attempt in 513 BC to establish a Greek colony between Cyrene and Carthage, which resulted in the combined local and Carthaginian expulsion two years later of the Greek colonists. Both Mbembe, Mamdani and Brown’s theories have a consistent theme of the indigenous Africans having been treated as uncivilised, second class citizens and that in many former colonial cities this has continued into the present day with a switch from race to wealth divide. [1] Greeks also colonized Cyrenaica around the same time. Referendum On Independence Of … De plus, lorsqu'il y avait des assemblées élues, celles-ci n'avaient que peu de pouvoir. La France administrait ainsi deux entités administratives : l'AOF (Afrique Occidentale Française) et l'AEF (Afrique Équatoriale Française), en s'appuyant sur les chefs locaux qui n'avaient pas de réelle fonction administrative mais étaient chargés de percevoir les impôts, recruter les travailleurs et rendre la justice. Early European expeditions by the Portuguese concentrated on colonising previously uninhabited islands such as the Cape Verde Islands and São Tomé Island, or establishing coastal forts as a base for trade. En effet, à chaque fois que des bouffons se rencontrent à des sommets de chefs d'Etat africains pour prétendre créer les Etats-Unis d'Afrique, ils demeurent jaloux de leurs pouvoirs respectifs souvent usurpés par les armes ou la fraude électorale, se perdent en querelles puériles et se séparent sans aucun résultat palpable. While some areas, in particular, South Africa, & Namibia retain a large population of European descent, only the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla and the islands of Réunion and Mayotte, the Canary Islands, and Madeira remain under European control, the latter two of which were never part of any African polity and have an overwhelmingly European population. [20], Shillington vividly portrays Belgium's initial opposition to independence, the demands by some urban Africans, the 1957 & 1958 local elections meant to calm this dissatisfaction, the general unrest that swept the colony, the rapid granting of independence and the civil strife that ensued.[21]. Forces Spéciales en Afrique: Opérations - Instruction - Renseignement (French Edition) Aug 26 2019 | Kindle eBook. Le colonisateur français à la rencontre de l'Islam en Afrique de l'Ouest et au Maroc. It cannot be understood nor should be taught without the context of this violence. chs. The whole of Roman/Byzantine North Africa eventually fell to the Arabs in the 7th century. Les meilleures illustrations du rôle de l’assimilation religieuse en vue de la réussite de la colonisation et de l’exploitation économique sont pro-bablement les discours tenus par le Ministère Belge des Colonies, et surtout le discours tenu, en 1883, par Léopold II, roi des Belges, devant les missionnaires se rendant en Afrique. La colonisation de l'Afrique par l'Europe a donc entraîné des avancées sociales, mais dans certains domaines seulement. De plus, la colonisation africaine n'a pas omis de produire des tensions au sein de l'Europe. This lack of sanitation and proper sewage systems add to this discourse of the people of Africa and Africa itself being savages and uncivilised, playing a central role in how the west justified the case of the civilising process. Initiée dès les XVIIe siècle et XVIIIe siècle, la colonisation de l'Afrique par les états européens s'accroît au XIXe siècle, par exemple avec la colonisation de l'Algérie par la France de Louis-Philippe en 1930. Les productions croissantes et le commerce ont constitué une solution aux famines chroniques mais n'ont pas su instaurer une sécurité alimentaire durable. Stephanie Terreni Brown is an academic in the field of colonialism. Blog. In Tanganyika, Julius Nyerere exerted influence not only among Africans, united by the common Swahili language, but also on some white leaders whose disproportionate voice under a racially weighted constitution was significant. Il mourut en 1895 et eu droit à des funérailles nationales et à un tombeau à l'intérieur de l'Institut Pasteur de Paris. Vincent Khapoya also notes that while European imposed borders did not correspond to traditional territories, such new territories provided entities to focus efforts by movements for increased political voice up to independence. Denise Bouche, Les villages de liberte en Afrique noirefranVaise (Paris, 1968) esp. The indigenous power was found in rural villages and were ruled by tribal authority, which seemed to be more in keeping with their history and tradition. He became the leader of an independent Tanganyika in 1961. ", This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 05:30. Dans le domaine des Droits de l'Homme, l'esclavage a connu une nette régression, bien que pratiqué depuis de nombreux siècles. Un café Maure lors de la colonisation française, Algérie. Rien de tel en Afrique subsaharienne où la colonisation date d'à peine un demi-siècle et a été ralentie par les deux guerres mondiales. Cheikh Hamahoullah, homme de foi et resistant : Islam et colonisation en Afrique. In her 2014 paper she examines how sanitation and dirt is used in colonial narratives through the example of Kampala in Uganda. [4], Carthage encountered and struggled with the Romans. Create a clean and professional home studio setup; Sept. 10, 2020 A surviving account of such is that of Hanno, which Harden who quotes it places at c. 425 BC. [24] The African’s day-to-day life then became a show of submission done through exercises like public works projects and military conscription. La colonisation française dans l'Afrique du Nord; Algérie - Tunisie - Maroc (avec 4 cates hors texte) Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item. In the conference's declaration, he wrote, “we believe in the rights of all peoples to govern themselves. de compte, le dernier roman de Monénembo semble subir . La Conférence de Berlin affirme le rôle des Européens « d'améliorer le bien-être des populations » ainsi que le but civilisateur du colonialisme. Essay on friends tv show afrique Dissertation colonisation en la, essay on heroic tragedy by dryden case study in oil and gas industry critical essays on oedipus rex en afrique colonisation la Dissertation, julius caesar act 2 essay questions english in everyday life essay. La principale cause de cette colonisation était la montée du nationalisme en Europe. The colonial power was mainly in urban towns and cities and were served by elected governments. Ces possessions s'organisent en deux ensembles : les protectorats (dominions pour les anglo-saxons) étaient administrés par un gouvernement local soutenu par la métropole (par exemple le Maroc ou la Tunisie pour la France). L'Indochine française suivra en 1954. Pro-independence Africans recognised the value of European education in dealing with Europeans in Africa. Les colons, à leur arrivée, cherchent donc à développer les moyens de communications et de transports, par la construction de routes, canaux et voies ferrées. To BOYI Colonisation. 78 likes. L'Histoire Vraie de la Colonisation de l'Afrique: Entre Crimes et Resistances (French Edition) eBook: Breyo, Alexandre: Amazon.co.uk: Kindle Store Dirt being seen as something out of place, whilst cleanliness being attributed to the “in group”, the colonisers, and dirt being paralleled with the indigenous people. Nous en étudierons dans un premier temps les caractéristiques politiques, puis dans un second et troisième temps les caractéristiques économique et sociale. His barbaric treatment of the Africans sparked a strong international protest and the European powers forced him to relinquish control to the Belgian Parliament to take control. La vie en Afrique ou Trois ans dans l'Afrique centrale / par Jérôme Becker ; avec préface du cte Goblet d'Alviella et appendices comprenant un projet de gymnases d'exploration et de colonisation un vade-mecum du voyageur en Afrique les résumés des conférences données sur la région du Tanganika par les capitaines Cambier et Storms ainsi que les voyages séjours etc. and the continuation of Africa as a source of raw materials for European industry. Published in: Revue Congolaise d’Economie , Vol. Through a comparison of power in the colony and postcolony, Mbembe demonstrates that violence in the colony was exerted on African bodies largely for the purpose of labor and submission. German attempts to seize control in Southwest Africa also produced ardent resistance, which was very forcefully repressed leading to the Herero and Namaqua Genocide. L 4.2 La colonisation française en Afrique - V/F. Paris : Maisonneuve et Larose. by Pierre Notin. Scullard mentions plans by such as Gaius Gracchus in the late 2nd century BC, Julius Caesar and Augustus in the mid- and late 1st century BC to establish a new Roman colony near the same site. 9 and 18. [24] European colonial powers sought natural resources in African colonies and needed the requisite labor force to extract them and simultaneously build the colonial city around these industries. By Madeleine Van Grieken-Taverniers. En effet, après l'unification de l'Italie et de l'Allemagne, les états européens désiraient s'affirmer. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Les Concessions Privilegiees En Afrique. 5. The 1885 Berlin Conference, initiated by Otto von Bismarck to establish international guidelines and avoiding violent disputes among European Powers, formalized the "New Imperialism". France appointed the state officials, passed laws and had to approve any measures passed by colonial assemblies. This rhetoric of sanitation is important because it is seen as a key part of modernity and being civilised, which the African population are therefore seen as not being. L'Europe profite de cette afflux de richesses et de matières premières à faible coût : bois exotiques, minerais divers et caoutchouc ainsi que de nombreux produits agricoles. 1 (December 2011): pp. Growing independence movements, indigenous political parties and trade unions coupled with pressure from within the imperialist powers and from the United States and the Soviet Union ensured the decolonisation of the majority of the continent by 1980. [24] They had the simultaneous goals of utilizing the raw labor and shaping the identity and character of the African. XIXe siècle, colonisation de l'Afrique Au XIXe siècle, l’Afrique devient le principal enjeu de la rivalité coloniale franco-britannique. One state for the colonial European population and one state for the indigenous population. De nouvelles espèces animales et végétales sont introduites. Online shopping for Colonisation - Grands thèmes from a great selection at Kindle Store Store. [13] Colonial powers later focused on abolishing slavery, developing infrastructure, and improving health and education. Supplément, n.d. (1983), pp. It is through this examination of the postcolony that Mbembe reveals the modes through which power was exerted in colonial Africa. Pp. Postcolonial theory has been derived from this anti-colonial/anti-imperial concept and writers such as Mbembe, Mamdani and Brown, and many more, have used it as a narrative for their work on the colonisation of Africa. ... la perte de leur autonomie et au d ébut de la colonisation. 41-61. La France a alors conquis l'Ouest de l'Afrique ainsi que le Maghreb et Madagascar. La Belgique détenait le centre Sud (Congo) et l'Allemagne le Cameroun. Une composition d'histoire : « La domination européenne sur l'Afrique en 1939 ». [12], Khapoya notes the significant attention colonial powers paid to the economics of colonization. En conclusion, on peut dire qu'avant 1939, le partage de l'Afrique entre les différents pays européens a constitué, dans une majorité de domaines, une entrée dans la modernité pour les peuples locaux. Traore, Alioune. France ruled from Paris, appointing chiefs individually without considering traditional criteria, but rather a loyalty to France. Arabs introduced the Arabic language and Islam in the early Medieval period, while the Malay people introduced varieties of their language to Madagascar even earlier. Among local groups so concerned were professionals such as lawyers and doctors, the petite bourgeoisie (clerks, teachers, small merchants), urban workers, cash crop farmers, peasant farmers, etc. "The French, the Portuguese, the Germans and the Belgians exercised a highly centralised type of administration called 'direct rule. The main point of his argument is that the colonial state in Africa took the form of a bifurcated state, "two forms of power under a single hegemonic authority". Mamdani mentions that in urban areas, native institutions were not recognised. This resistance was at first successful. Abjectivication is continually used as a mechanism to dominate a group of people, and control them. Under Egypt's Pharaoh Amasis (570–526 BC) a Greek mercantile colony was established at Naucratis, some 50 miles from the later Alexandria. However, within a year, the insurgency was suppressed by reinforcing troops armed with machine guns. However the oldest European founded city on the La colonisation Belge en Afrique centrale: guides des archives africaines du ministère des affaires africaines 1885–1965. Les Britanniques ont quitté les Indes avec soulagement en 1947 et la Birmanie en 1948. Imperialism generated self-esteem across Europe. Online shopping for Colonisation - Grands thèmes from a great selection at Kindle Store Store. Un autre point est celui de l'industrie, dont le développement fut quasi-nul en Afrique, par peur de la concurrence que son implantation aurait pu introduire. Some Africans established their own churches. This was indirect rule.[9]. Brussels: Ministère des Affaires Etrangères, n.d. (1981). - Volume 26 Issue 4 - … This was established and under Augustus served as the capital city of African continent Roman province of Africa.[5]. This became one of the major cities of Hellenistic and Roman times, a trading and cultural centre as well as a military headquarters and communications hub. Une course à la possession où les deux plus grandes puissances impérialistes rêvent de liaisons mythiques : Le Caire-Le Cap où flotterait sans discontinuer l’Union Jack, Alger-Brazzaville pour le drapeau tricolore. Le cas du Congo belge et ses influences. - Résumé critique des travaux de l'économiste Nathan Nunn. Malgré son hémiplégie, il découvre les micro-organismes grâce à la fermentation, qu'il utilise d'abord pour fabriquer des alcools. [11], King Leopold II of Belgium called his vast private colony the Congo Free State. Utica, for example, was founded c. 1100 BC. Expressions of excess and exaggeration characterize this violence.[24]. Britain sought to follow a process of gradual transfer of power. Download PDF: Sorry, we are unable to provide the full text but you may find it at the following location(s): http://www.persee.fr/docAsPDF/... (external link) The French policy of assimilation faced some resentment, especially in North Africa. Gothic Vandals briefly established a kingdom there in the 5th century, which shortly thereafter fell to the Romans again, this time the Byzantines. Postcolonial geographers are consistent with the notion that colonialism, although maybe not in such clear-cut forms, is still concurrent today. De fait, de réels progrès furent accomplis comme, par exemple, la fin de pratiques barbares comme le cannibalisme rituel. [23] The division of the colonial state created a racial segregation between the European 'citizen' and African 'subject', and a division between institutions of government. Malgré ses dons artistiques (et son sens de l'observation) et son désir de devenir peintre, son père le força à faire des études et une carrière scientifiques à Strasbourg. [24], Mbembe contrasts colonial violence with that of the postcolony. D'autre part, même si certains placements (bancaires en particulier) ont permis des fortunes rapides, les faillites n'en furent pas moins fréquentes, de même que celles des petites exploitations locales qui n'ont pas pu faire face aux grandes. [17] Shillington describes the granting of independence in March 1956 to Morocco and Tunisia to allow concentration on Algeria where there was a long (1954–62) and bloody armed struggle to achieve independence. [Mohamed Toumait; François-Paul Blanc; Université de Perpignan (1979-....).] Initiée dès les XVIIe siècle et XVIIIe siècle, la colonisation de l'Afrique par les états européens s'accroît au XIXesiècle, par exemple avec la colonisation de l'Algérie par la France de Louis-Philippe en 1930. La conquête des colonies leur a ainsi permis d'augmenter leur prestige, par les possessions humaines et territoriales que constituaient leurs immenses empires coloniaux. en Afrique de l‘Ou est, racontée sur plusieurs centenaires, est . La recherche a élaboré de nombreux vaccins (par exemple contre le paludisme) et des campagnes de vaccination massive ont été menées à l'époque de Louis Pasteur. The Allies of World War I and World War II made extensive use of African labour and soldiers during the wars. Ce sont les premiers germes de la colonisation de l'Afrique, germes féconds d' où sortiront des ramifications vigoureuses qui , dans cinquante ans , auront enlacé tout le pays , sur 250 lieues de cote et 100 lieues de profondeur . No prices stated. Son avancement est noté 2/3. The main period of decolonisation in Africa began after World War II. [2] There was also an attempt in 513 BC to establish a Greek colony between Cyrene and Carthage, which resulted in the combined local and Carthaginian expulsion two years later of the Greek colonists.[3]. [18] Khapoya writes that when President de Gaulle in 1958 held a referendum in its African colonies on the issue, only Guinea voted for outright independence. Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) founded Alexandria during his conquest of Egypt. Mais quelles étaient les caractéristiques de cette domination ? Caricature de Behrendt sur la décolonisation en Afrique (Janvier 1960) @inproceedings{Behrendt2017CaricatureDB, title={Caricature de Behrendt sur la d{\'e}colonisation en Afrique (Janvier 1960)}, author={Fritz Behrendt}, year={2017} } This included: acquisition of land, often enforced labour, the introduction of cash crops, sometimes even to the neglect of food crops, changing inter-African trading patterns of pre-colonial times, the introduction of labourers from India, etc. Local groups in German East Africa resisted German enforced labour and taxation. Between 1870 and 1914 Europe acquired almost 9 million square miles (23,000,000 km2)—one-fifth of the land area of the globe—to its overseas colonial possessions. Il serait intéressant de s'interroger sur les changements que la Seconde Guerre Mondiale a provoqué et en quoi cet événement a modifié la politique du colonialisme, en Afrique et sur les autres continents. Starting in 1945 Pan-African Congress, Gold Coast's British- and American-educated independence leader Kwame Nkrumah made his focus clear. Quelles furent s… Quelles furent les causes et l'organisation politiques de la colonisation africaine ? La Conférence de Berlin, en 1885, pose les règles de cette colonisation et marque le début d'un développement fulgurant : la totalité de l'Afrique est dominée par l'Europe en 1936, date de l'annexion de l'Éthiopie par Mussolini. Greeks also colonized Cyrenaica around the same time. Kodila-Tedika, Oasis (2013): Esclavagisme et colonisation : Quelles conséquences contemporaines en Afrique ? [28] In contrast to Mbembe and Mamdani, Brown is a less prominent writer and one whose work is yet to be reviewed by other academics meaning it is currently harder to grasp what academic theoretical critiques could be brought against her work. Khapoya describes the differences in gaining independence by British and French colonies. L’Afrique: La colonisation “La colonisation est un des faits majeurs de l’histoire du … À l'inverse, certaines régions comme l'Algérie étaient dirigées directement par la métropole. He reminds the reader that colonial powers demanded use of African bodies in particularly violent ways for the purpose of labor as well as the shaping of subservient colonised identities. Il découvre ensuite, à Paris, le vaccin contre la rage, en 1848. International audienceThis article repositions the question of the value of heritage in the public space by highlighting two borders: that of the dominant and the dominated. Established empires, notably Britain, France and Portugal had already claimed coastal areas but had not penetrated deeply inland. [22] The colonial state in Africa was divided into two. La Conférence de Berlin, en 1885, pose les règles de cette colonisation et marque le début d'un développement fulgurant : la totalité de l'Afrique est dominée par l'Europe en 1936, date de l'annexion de l'Éthiopie par Mussolini. [6] This allowed the imperialists to move inland, with relatively few disputes among themselves. Simples Documents Relatifs a Un Incident de Colonisation: Au Congo Francais by Sans Auteur (Paperback / softback, 2014) at the best online prices at eBay! La Grande-Bretagne possédait l'Est (Égypte, Soudan) ainsi que l'Afrique du Sud. Post colonialism can be described as a powerful interdisciplinary mood in the social sciences and humanities that is refocusing attention on the imperial/colonial past, and critically revising understanding of the place of the west in the world.[26]. [10] A decade later the colony seemed conquered, though, "It had been a long-drawn-out struggle and inland administration centres were in reality little more than a series of small military fortresses."