[29] The most recent layers of sedimentary rock were formed as the seabed of the ancient Champlain Sea at the end of the last ice age about 14,000 years ago. This vast sector encompassing approximately 7,300 businesses and employ more than 145,000 people. This is a legacy of colonial times when only Roman Catholics were permitted to settle in New France. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. Quebec's most popular artists of the last century include the singers Félix Leclerc (1950s), Gilles Vigneault (1960s–present), Kate and Anna McGarrigle (1970s–present) and Céline Dion (1980s–present). CDPQ is a leading player in Québec. Among the Nordic marine animals, there are two particularly important to cite: the walrus and the narwhal. TPG bought a majority stake in 2015. Currently, the song Gens du pays is by far preferred by many Quebecers to be the national anthem of Quebec. This result caused a split in the Quebec Liberal Party that led to the formation of the new Action démocratique (Democratic Action) party led by Mario Dumont and Jean Allaire. By 1758 at the Battle of Carillon, the Flag of Carillon would become the basis of Quebec's desire to have its own flag. In 1758, the British mounted an attack on New France by sea and took the French fort at Louisbourg. Its largest city, Montreal, is about 64 kilometers (40 miles) north of the U.S. border. [40][41] The main climatic influences are from western and northern Canada and move eastward, and from the southern and central United States that move northward. TPG bought a majority stake in 2015. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Quebec, QC. [163] Approximately 52% of Canadian companies in these sectors are based in Quebec, mainly in Montreal and Quebec City. [169] This industry accounted for 3.1% of Quebec's GDP. By 1903, the parent of today's flag had taken shape, known as the "Fleurdelisé". The National Capital Region’s hundreds of kilometres of trails and multi-use … Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. In cities like Québec and Montréal, great shows are organized in the main public places (such as the Abraham plains, Québec, or Maisonneuve Park, Montréal) where several of the most popular Quebec artists relay each others[clarification needed] until late at night. Samuel de Champlain was part of a 1603 expedition from France that travelled into the St. Lawrence River. [217] Quebec traditional music is currently provided by various contemporary groups seen mostly during Christmas and New Year's Eve celebrations, Quebec National Holiday and many local festivals. Cities in Quebec. [39] The Canadian boreal forest is the northernmost and most abundant of the three forest areas in Quebec that straddle the Canadian Shield and the upper lowlands of the province. [14] In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada".[15][16]. Specifically, there was no possibility of restoring the previous political balance – there were simply too many English people unwilling to reach a compromise with the 145,000 Canadiens or their colonial governor. Historically June 24 was a holiday honouring French Canada's patron saint, St. John the Baptist, which is why it is commonly known as La Saint-Jean-Baptiste (often shortened to La St-Jean). [206], Quebec has been described as a potential clean energy superpower. For the province's capital city, see. HR 8799 is the first direct observation of an exoplanet in history. [160] Quebec is one of North America's leading high-tech player. More than one million people in Quebec are employed in the science and technology sector. [153] Quebec's spending in R&D in 2011 was equal to 2.63% of GDP, above the European Union average of 1.84% and will have to reaches the target of devoting 3% of GDP to research and development activities in 2013 according to the Lisbon Strategy. Roussopoulos, Dimitrios I, compiler (1974). (free Quebec!) [99] Following Durham's report,[99] the British government merged the two colonial provinces into one Province of Canada in 1840 with the Act of Union. Excluding administrative units reserved for Aboriginal lands, the primary types of subdivision are: In the 2016 census, Quebec had a population of 8,164,361 living in 3,531,663 of its 3,858,943 total dwellings, a 3.3% change from its 2011 population of 7,903,001. [200] Other organizations, such as the Canadian Coast Guard and Nav Canada, provide the same service for the sea and air transportation. [23] This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. In 1998 the Montreal Insectarium sponsored a poll to choose an official insect. The fleur-de-lis, the ancient symbol of the French monarchy, first arrived on the shores of the Gaspésie in 1534 with Jacques Cartier on his first voyage. [178] Quebec is ranked, as of March 2011, 13th in the world in terms of investment in research and development. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. The first cheese-making school in North America was established in Saint-Denis-de-Kamouraska in 1893. The Appalachian region of Quebec has a narrow strip of ancient mountains along the southeastern border of Quebec. The Montreal School of Fine Arts forms the painters, printmakers and sculptors of Quebec. From Quebec's musical repertoire, the song A La Claire Fontaine[219] was the anthem of the New France, Patriots and French Canadian, then replaced by O Canada. [190] One of the most recent is the discovery of the complex extrasolar planets system HR 8799. Further south lie the subarctic taiga of the Eastern Canadian Shield taiga ecoregion and the boreal forest of the Central Canadian Shield forests, where spruce, fir, and poplar trees provide raw materials for Quebec's pulp and paper and lumber industries. [179] The research and development expenditures will be more than 3% of the province's GDP in 2013. The Film Festival of the 3 Americas, Quebec City, the Festival of International Short Film, Saguenay, the World Film Festival and the Festival of New Cinema, Montreal, are other annual events surrounding the film industry in Quebec. Ives Goddard. In 1837, residents of Lower Canada – led by Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson – formed an armed resistance group to seek an end to the unilateral control of the British governors. It was at this moment that the monks of La Trappe of Oka began to produce the famous Oka cheese. [57] Avian fauna includes birds of prey like the golden eagle, the peregrine falcon, the snowy owl and the bald eagle. Traditional dishes are also the star of "Le temps des fêtes", a period which covers the winter holidays. [198] Montreal is ranked 4th in North America for the number of jobs in the pharmaceutical sector.[198][199]. The aquatic environment is composed of 12.1% of fresh water and 9.2% of saltwater (percentage of total QC area). This article is about the Canadian province. Approximately half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area and the Island of Montreal. The National Circus School and the École de cirque de Québec were created to train future Contemporary circus artists. Some livestock have the title of "Québec heritage breed", namely the Canadian horse, the Chantecler chicken and the Canadian cow. The festivities occur on June 23 and 24 and are celebrated all over Quebec. Authorities in New France became more aggressive in their efforts to expel British traders and colonists from the Ohio Valley. [139] However, both English and French are required by the Constitution Act, 1867, for the enactment of laws and regulations, and any person may use English or French in the National Assembly and the courts. Caisse DE Depot ET Placement DU Quebec’s holdings in Annaly Capital […] These areas, listed in order from the northernmost to the southernmost are: the tundra, the taiga, the Canadian boreal forest (coniferous), mixed forest and Deciduous forest.[39]. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. Until 1968, the Quebec legislature was bicameral,[122] consisting of the Legislative Council and the Legislative Assembly. [191][192] Olivier Daigle and Claude Carignan, astrophysicists from Université de Montréal have invented an astronomical camera approximately 500 times more powerful than those currently on the market. The negotiations quickly reached a stand-still. Often known as Bill 101, it defined French as the only official language of Quebec in areas of provincial jurisdiction.[107]. In 2003, 3886 cargo and 9.7 million tonnes of goods transited the Quebec portion of the St. Lawrence Seaway. Capitale-Nationale (French pronunciation: ​[kapital nɑsjɔnal]; English: National Capital region) is one of the 17 administrative regions of Quebec. It extends northeastward from the southwestern portion of the province along the shores of the Saint Lawrence River to the Quebec City region, limited to the North by the Laurentian Mountains and to the South by the Appalachians. Although reaction to conscription was favourable in English Canada the idea was deeply unpopular in Quebec. Thus, the development of Quebec masterpieces in painting, printmaking and sculpture is marked by the contribution of artists such as Louis-Philippe Hébert, Cornelius Krieghoff, Alfred Laliberté, Marc-Aurèle Fortin, Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Coté, Jean Paul Lemieux, Clarence Gagnon, Adrien Dufresne, Alfred Pellan, Jean-Philippe Dallaire, Charles Daudelin, Arthur Villeneuve, Jean-Paul Riopelle, Paul-Émile Borduas and Marcelle Ferron. [162], About 180 000 Quebeckers work in different field of information technology. Located in the eastern part of Canada, and (from a historical and political perspective) part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of which is very sparsely populated. Nearly 9% of the population of Quebec belongs to a visible minority group. By 2012, the population of Quebec reached 8 million, and it is projected to reach 9.2 million in 2056. [156] Science and technology are key factors in the economic position of Quebec. In 1970, their activities culminated in events referred to as the October Crisis when James Cross, the British trade commissioner to Canada, was kidnapped along with Pierre Laporte, a provincial minister and Vice-Premier. [168] This industry employs 68,000 people in several regions of Quebec. The second largest deal was the $320M privatization of Centre-du-Québec’s NAPEC Inc. by a global investment firm. While many works decorate the public areas of Quebec, others are displayed in foreign countries such as the sculpture Embâcle (Jam) by Charles Daudelin on Québec Place in Paris and the statue Québec Libre! The government hopes to create a strong culture of innovation in Quebec for the next decades and to create a sustainable economy. The all time record high was 40.0 °C (104.0 °F) and the all time record low was −51.0 °C (−59.8 °F). "[115][116][117] However, there is considerable debate and uncertainty over what this means. [223] The State corporation Télé-Québec, the federal Crown corporation CBC, general and specialized private channels, networks, independent and community radio stations broadcast the various Quebec téléromans, the national and regional news, interactive and spoken programmations, etc. This law has been the subject of periodic controversy since its inception. [187][188][189], The province is one of the world leaders in the field of space science and contributed to important discoveries in this field. [39] It is generally a quite flat and exposed mountainous terrain interspersed with higher points such as the Laurentian Mountains in southern Quebec, the Otish Mountains in central Quebec and the Torngat Mountains near Ungava Bay.