This was meant simply to halt the decimation of the Indian population and to give the surviving Indians time to reconstitute themselves. Sauvage spoke highly of Las Casas to the king, who appointed Las Casas and Sauvage to write a new plan for reforming the governmental system of the Indies. The material contained in the Apologetic History is primarily ethnographic accounts of the indigenous cultures of the Indies – the Taíno, the Ciboney, and the Guanahatabey, but it also contains descriptions of many of the other indigenous cultures that Las Casas learned about through his travels and readings. This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 21:20. Il est ordonné prêtre à Saint-Domingue puis devient en 1544 évêque de San Cristobal, dans la pauvre province du Chiapas, au Mexique. Wars in which you have destroyed such an infinite number of them by homicides and slaughters never heard of before. "[24] Las Casas and his friend Pedro de la Rentería were awarded a joint encomienda which was rich in gold and slaves, located on the Arimao River close to Cienfuegos. The encomenderos offered to buy the rights to the encomiendas from the Crown, and Charles V was inclined to accept since his wars had left him in deep economic troubles. « Ce terme ou vocable de conquête, en ce qui concerne les Indes découvertes ou à découvrir, est tyrannique, mahométique, abusif et infernal. Las Casas is often considered to be one of the first advocates for a universal conception of human dignity (later human rights). Founded in 1515, there was already a small Franciscan monastery in Cumana, and a Dominican one at Chiribichi, but the monks there were being harassed by Spaniards operating slave raids from the nearby Island of Cubagua. [67] His last act as Bishop of Chiapas was writing a confesionario, a manual for the administration of the sacrament of confession in his diocese, still refusing absolution to unrepentant encomenderos. [71] Las Casas countered that the scriptures did not in fact support war against all heathens, only against certain Canaanite tribes; that the Indians were not at all uncivilized nor lacking social order; that peaceful mission was the only true way of converting the natives; and finally that some weak Indians suffering at the hands of stronger ones was preferable to all Indians suffering at the hands of Spaniards. In May 1517, Las Casas was forced to travel back to Spain to denounce to the regent the failure of the Hieronymite reforms. De retour en Amérique, Bartolomé de Las Casas prend conscience de l’injustice du système de l'encomienda. [118], The small town of Lascassas, Tennessee, in the United States has also been named after him. [106] That view is contradicted by Sylvia Wynter, who argued that Las Casas's 1516 Memorial was the direct cause of Charles V granting permission in 1518 to transport the first 4,000 African slaves to Jamaica. Languages, Empires, Nations.) In fact it was not published for 314 years, until 1875. Bartolomé de Las Casas died on July 18, 1566, in Madrid. [32][33][34][b] This shows that Las Casas's first concern was not to end slavery as an institution, but to end the physical abuse and suffering of the Indians. [41], Following a suggestion by his friend and mentor Pedro de Córdoba, Las Casas petitioned a land grant to be allowed to establish a settlement in northern Venezuela at Cumaná. Chaque semaine, un contrepoint historique de l'actualité, anniversaires, récits, devinettes : Gratuit et vous pouvez vous désabonner à tout moment, controverse sur le point de savoir si les Indiens doivent être convertis par la contrainte. En priant au-dessus des tombes, on a conscience de faire partie d'une même communauté des vivants et des morts. This was easier thought than done, as most of the people who were in positions of power were themselves either encomenderos or otherwise profiting from the influx of wealth from the Indies. "[85] He even drew up a budget of each pueblo's expenses to cover wages for administrators, clerics, Bachelors of Latin, doctors, surgeons, pharmacists, advocates, ranchers, miners, muleteers, hospitalers, pig herders, fishermen, etc. [68], Las Casas returned to Spain, leaving behind many conflicts and unresolved issues. [11] According to one biographer, his family were of converso heritage,[12] although others refer to them as ancient Christians who migrated from France. The book was deemed unsound for publication by the theologians of Salamanca and Alcalá for containing unsound doctrine, but the pro-encomendero faction seized on Sepúlveda as their intellectual champion. Bartolomé de Las Casas (1474-1566) a consacré sa vie à défendre les Indiens d’Amérique dont les Espagnols avaient entrepris de conquérir les terres, et de convertir depuis la découverte du continent par Christophe Colomb en 1492. [48] In 1534 Las Casas made an attempt to travel to Peru to observe the first stages of conquest of that region by Francisco Pizarro. Ce qui requiert, non la conquête … In 1550, he participated in the Valladolid debate, in which Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda argued that the Indians were less than human, and required Spanish masters to become civilized. As Ocampo's ships began returning with slaves from the land Las Casas had been granted, he went to Hispaniola to complain to the Audiencia. [31] In this early work, Las Casas advocated importing black slaves from Africa to relieve the suffering Indians, a stance he later retracted, becoming an advocate for the Africans in the colonies as well. All warfare was illegal and unjust and only through the papal mandate of peacefully bringing Christianity to heathen peoples could "Just Titles" be acquired. Une lettre pour tous les passionnés d'Histoire, Publié ou mis à jour le : 2018-11-27 09:50:14. He also informed the Theologians of Salamanca, led by Francisco de Vitoria, of the mass baptism practiced by the Franciscans, resulting in a dictum condemning the practice as sacrilegious. Las Casas doit affronter sur ce point le frère Juan Ginès de Sepulveda (60 ans), chapelain de l'empereur et théologien émérite. He traveled to Central America, acting as a missionary among the Maya of Guatemala and participating in debates among colonial churchmen about how best to bring the natives to the Christian faith. This book, written a decade earlier and sent to the attention of then-prince Philip II of Spain, contained accounts of the abuses committed by some Spaniards against Native Americans during the early stages of colonization. [74], In 1552, Las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. This letter, which reinvoked the old conflict over the requirements for the sacrament of baptism between the two orders, was intended to bring Las Casas in disfavour. PhD dissertation, Harvard University 1982. Il entame une campagne pour la défense des Indiens et renonce à son encomienda en 1514. The rumours even included him among the dead. Las Casas had become a hated figure by Spaniards all over the islands, and he had to seek refuge in the Dominican monastery. [58] On November 20, 1542, the emperor signed the New Laws abolishing the encomiendas and removing certain officials from the Council of the Indies. Through the efforts of Las Casas's missionaries the so-called "Land of War" came to be called "Verapaz", "True Peace". [111] He is also often cited as a predecessor of the liberation theology movement. Il renonce à ses Indiens en 1514, ne devient dominicain qu’en 1522-23, et n’accepte vraiment l’altérité qu’à la fin de sa vie, et estimant que les sacrifices humains sont excusables, et la barbarie une question de … [105] Other historians, such as John Fiske writing in 1900, denied that Las Casas's suggestions affected the development of the slave trade. Ce fut l'origine de la traite atlantique. De ce texte engagé et parfois excessif provient la belle sentence, prémonitoire de l'idéologie des droits de l'homme : « Les lois, les règles naturelles et les droits des hommes sont communs à toutes les nations, chrétiennes et gentilles, et quels que soient leur secte, loi, état, couleur et condition, sans aucune différence ». In a pastoral letter issued on March 20, 1545, Las Casas refused absolution to slave owners and encomenderos even on their death bed, unless all their slaves had been set free and their property returned to them. Il comprend vite la situation qui s'est mise en place dans le nouveau Monde. Las Casas advocated the dismantlement of the city of Asunción and the subsequent gathering of Indians into communities of about 1,000 Indians to be situated as satellites of Spanish towns or mining areas. Le regard du jeune Bartolomé de las Casas aura peut-être croisé celui du grand amiral Colomb mais se sera sûrement davantage attardé sur les " Indiens " exhibés sur les hauteurs de la ville lumière. Motolinia would later be a fierce critic of Las Casas, accusing him of being all talk and no action when it came to converting the Indians. [23] He witnessed many atrocities committed by Spaniards against the native Ciboney and Guanahatabey peoples. Ce dernier revendique le droit à la conquête pour la raison qu'il faut mettre fin aux sacrifices humains des Indiens et assurer leur salut par le baptême. Car il ne saurait y avoir, nulle part aux Indes, de guerres contre les Maures comme en Afrique, ni contre les Turcs et hérétiques qui possèdent nos terres, persécutent les chrétiens et s’efforcent de détruire notre sainte foi : il ne s’agit que d’y prêcher l’Évangile du Christ, d’y propager la religion chrétienne et d’y convertir les âmes. [69], As a part of Las Casas's defense by offense, he had to argue against Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. [54] Las Casas left Guatemala for Mexico, where he stayed for more than a year before setting out for Spain in 1540. [107], Revisionist histories of the late 20th century have argued for a more nuanced image of Las Casas, suggesting that he was neither a saint nor a fanatic but a person with exceptional willpower and a sense of justice, which sometimes led him into arrogance, stubbornness, and hypocrisy. En savoir plus, se développe avec le seul soutien de ses abonnés...En savoir plus, Déposez votre email afin d'être averti des événements relatifs à l'Histoire : expositions, conférences, spectacles etc. Arriving as one of the first Spanish (and European) settlers in the Americas, Las Casas initially participated in, but eventually felt compelled to oppose, the abuses committed by colonists against the Native Americans. In 1513, as a chaplain, Las Casas participated in Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's and Pánfilo de Narváez' conquest of Cuba. Bartolomé de las Casas, né à Séville en 1484 et mort à Madrid le 17 juillet 1566, est un prêtre dominicain, écrivain et historien espagnol.Il est célèbre pour avoir défendu la cause des Amérindiens et dénoncé les violences espagnoles.. Il se rend aux Amériques en 1502 à Hispaniola (Saint-Domingue) et devient propriétaire d'une encomienda. INDIENS ET BARBARES Le génocide Amérindiens et la spoliation de leur continent. He is the subject of the poetic sequence "Homage to Bartolomé de Las Casas" by the American poet Daniel Tobin, which appears in his book Double Life. Bartolomé de Las Casas (1484-1566) prend connaissance de ce sermon prophétique qui « fait partie de ces événements qui font date dans l’histoire de l’Église et de l’humanité », écrit Mariano Delgado. First Sepúlveda read the conclusions of his Democrates Alter, and then the council listened to Las Casas read his counterarguments in the form of an "Apología". Las Casas appointed a vicar for his diocese and set out for Europe in December 1546, arriving in Lisbon in April 1547 and in Spain on November 1547. He was consecrated in the Dominican Church of San Pablo on March 30, 1544. In this way he was successful in converting several native chiefs, among them those of Atitlán and Chichicastenango, and in building several churches in the territory named Alta Verapaz. The Indians had been provoked to attack the settlement of the monks because of the repeated slave raids by Spaniards operating from Cubagua. Las Casas a en effet défendu, notamment lors de la célèbre controverse de Valladolid, le droit des peuples amérindiens à vivre en liberté, […] Selon lui, il ne faut pas convertir les populations par la contrainte. [15] He participated in slave raids and military expeditions against the native Taíno population of Hispaniola. He described the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples.[2]. "Las Casas" redirects here. [35] In keeping with the legal and moral doctrine of the time Las Casas believed that slavery could be justified if it was the result of Just War, and at the time he assumed that the enslavement of Africans was justified. Et non, l'Eglise Catholique ne s'est pas rendue coupable de tous les maux dont on l'accuse. Alors que nos ancêtres de l'Antiquité avaient terriblement peur de la mort, c'est au Moyen-Âge que change le rapport de l'homme à la mort. 978 0 8223 3930 4; 978 0 8223 3939 7", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, Biblioteca de autor Bartolomé de las Casas, Works by or about Bartolomé de las Casas, Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (Philippines), United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador, Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin, Indigenous Peoples Council on Biocolonialism, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989, Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 2007,é_de_las_Casas&oldid=990504581, People celebrated in the Lutheran liturgical calendar, Spanish Roman Catholic bishops in North America, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October 2017, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2019, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Pages using S-rel template with ca parameter, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Episcopal Church (USA); The Roman Catholic Church. He is said to have preached, "Tell me by what right of justice do you hold these Indians in such a cruel and horrible servitude? They stayed in the convent founded some years earlier by Fray Domingo Betanzos and studied the K'iche' language with Bishop Francisco Marroquín, before traveling into the interior region called Tuzulutlan, "The Land of War", in 1537. Bartolomé de las Casas , est un prêtre dominicain, missionnaire, écrivain et historien espagnol, célèbre pour avoir dénoncé les pratiques des colons espagnols et avoir défendu les droits des Amérindiens. Après les expéditions de re… Why do you keep them so oppressed and exhausted, without giving them enough to eat or curing them of the sicknesses they incur from the excessive labor you give them, and they die, or rather you kill them, in order to extract and acquire gold every day. Originally planned as a six-volume work, each volume describes a decade of the history of the Indies from the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 to 1520, and most of it is an eye-witness account. Among those they equaled were the Greeks and the Romans, and they surpassed them by many good and better customs. Las Casas was among those denied confession for this reason. Bien loin tout cela de la doctrine du Christ . Ce livre présente le travail et la pensée de Bartolomé de Las Casas, figure majeure de l’histoire universelle, qui a combattu toute sa vie pour les peuples du Nouveau-Monde, découverts et dominés par les Espagnols. The second was a change in the labor policy so that instead of a colonist owning the labor of specific Indians, he would have a right to man-hours, to be carried out by no specific persons. Benavente described indignantly how Las Casas had once denied baptism to an aging Indian who had walked many leagues to receive it, only on the grounds that he did not believe that the man had received sufficient doctrinal instruction. [65][66] At the meeting, probably after lengthy reflection, and realizing that the New Laws were lost in Mexico, Las Casas presented a moderated view on the problems of confession and restitution of property, Archbishop Juan de Zumárraga of Mexico and Bishop Julián Garcés of Puebla agreed completely with his new moderate stance, Bishop Vasco de Quiroga of Michoacán had minor reservations, and Bishops Francisco Marroquín of Guatemala and Juan Lopez de Zárate of Oaxaca did not object. The judges then deliberated on the arguments presented for several months before coming to a verdict. Il défend les Amérindiens, pour qu’ils aient des conditions de vie dignes. Before a council consisting of Cardinal García de Loaysa, the Count of Osorno, Bishop Fuenleal and several members of the Council of the Indies, Las Casas argued that the only solution to the problem was to remove all Indians from the care of secular Spaniards, by abolishing the encomienda system and putting them instead directly under the Crown as royal tribute-paying subjects. L'empereur, ému par sa plaidoirie, décide de sévir contre les abus en Amérique. That said, finding fifty men willing to invest 200 ducats each and three years of unpaid work proved impossible for Las Casas. Las Casas was resolved to see Prince Charles who resided in Flanders, but on his way there he passed Madrid and delivered to the regents a written account of the situation in the Indies and his proposed remedies. En savoir plus, Vallverdu, c'est vous le roi du barbarisme! Mais les colons protégés par l'éloignement contournent ses injonctions. L'aberration du Onzième Remède (1516) [en ligne]. It was important for Las Casas that this method be tested without meddling from secular colonists, so he chose a territory in the heart of Guatemala where there were no previous colonies and where the natives were considered fierce and war-like. Aujourd’hui, Las Casas est considéré comme le pionnier de la lutte pour les droits de l’homme et, par certains, comme le père de la théologie de la libération, un concept devenu un mouvement au début des années 1960 qui considérait que l’Eglise devait agir pour amener le changement social. Or c'est du temps où il était lui-même colon ... Lire la suite. For other uses, see, Spanish Dominican friar, historian, and social reformer, Las Casas and Emperor Charles V: The peasant colonization scheme, "If one sacrifices from what has been wrongfully obtained, the offering is blemished; the gifts of the lawless are not acceptable. Las Casas's supporters were Diego Columbus and the new chancellor Gattinara. [99] Menéndez Pelayo also accused Las Casas of having been instrumental in suppressing the publication of Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda's "Democrates Alter" (also called Democrates Secundus) out of spite, but other historians find that to be unlikely since it was rejected by the theologians of both Alcalá and Salamanca, who were unlikely to be influenced by Las Casas. His father was a merchant and was acquainted with the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus.Young Bartolomé, then about 9 years old, was in Seville when Columbus returned from his first voyage in 1493; he might have met members of the Taíno tribe who Columbus enslaved and brought back with him from the … Q.2 / La supériorité militaire des Espagnols repose sur la présence de chevaux dans leur armée ainsi que sur les armes à feu et notamment l’artillerie. Le débat est présidé par l'envoyé du pape Salvatore Roncieri. The tragic outcome of Las Casas's great mainland adventure made him turn his life in a new direction. Le travail et la pensée de Bartolomé de Las Casas, figure majeure de l’histoire universelle, qui a combattu toute sa vie pour les peuples du Nouveau-Monde, découverts et dominés par les Espagnols. Homme de foi et de convictions, le religieux dominicain Bartolomé de Las Casas a proclamé pour la première fois, il y a un demi-millénaire, l'universalité des droits de l'Homme. Et accédez à des documents multimédia, exclusifs et surprenants ! The recruitment drive was difficult, and during the process the power relation shifted at court when Chancellor Sauvage, Las Casas's main supporter, unexpectedly died. Bartolomé de las Casas spent 50 years of his life actively fighting slavery and the colonial abuse of indigenous peoples, especially by trying to convince the Spanish court to adopt a more humane policy of colonization. Early in 1522 Las Casas left the settlement to complain to the authorities. Christianity and Freedom: Historical Perspectives. Lingering for a while in the Dominican convent of Granada, he got into conflict with Rodrigo de Contreras, Governor of Nicaragua, when Las Casas vehemently opposed slaving expeditions by the Governor. De Las Casas copied Columbus' diary from his 1492 voyage to modern-day Bahamas. C'est une manière de se débarrasser de ce gêneur qui irrite la cour et les colons. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies[c] (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written in 1542 (published in Seville in 1552) about the mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in colonial times and sent to then-Prince Philip II of Spain. Las Casas defended himself by writing two treatises on the "Just Title" – arguing that the only legality with which the Spaniards could claim titles over realms in the New World was through peaceful proselytizing. Bartolomé de Las Casas, indigenous rights, and ecclesiastical imperalism. Las Casas's strategy was to teach Christian songs to merchant Indian Christians who then ventured into the area. Décidé à rompre avec les pratiques coloniales, il entre plus tard dans l'ordre religieux des dominicains. In the years following his death, his ideas became taboo in the Spanish realm, and he was seen as a nearly heretical extremist. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, "July 2015: Bartolomé de las Casas and 500 Years of Racial Injustice | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective", "Bishop Bartolomé de las Casas (Casaus), O.P. "Bartolomé de las Casas and the Question of Negro Slavery in the Early Spanish Indies." This resulted in a new resolution to be presented to viceroy Mendoza. Consequently, the commissioners were unable to take any radical steps towards improving the situation of the natives. [95], Opposition to Las Casas reached its climax in historiography with Spanish right-wing, nationalist historians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries constructing a pro-Spanish White Legend, arguing that the Spanish Empire was benevolent and just and denying any adverse consequences of Spanish colonialism. The first edition in translation was published in Dutch in 1578, during the religious persecution of Dutch Protestants by the Spanish crown, followed by editions in French (1578), English (1583), and German (1599) – all countries where religious wars were raging. (Latin America Otherwise. Il est né à Séville en 1484 et meurt à Madrid en 1566. j.) 2 Pages • 850 Vues. He proposed 12 other remedies, all having the specific aim of improving the situation for the Indians and limiting the powers that colonists were able to exercise over them.[84]. [8] For centuries, Las Casas's birthdate was believed to be 1474; however, in the 1970s, scholars conducting archival work demonstrated this to be an error, after uncovering in the Archivo General de Indias records of a contemporary lawsuit that demonstrated he was born a decade later than had been supposed. In his early writings, he advocated the use of African slaves instead of Natives in the West Indian colonies but did so without knowing that the Portuguese were carrying out "brutal and unjust wars in the name of spreading the faith". To make the proposal palatable to the king, Las Casas had to incorporate the prospect of profits for the royal treasury. [27][28], Las Casas arrived in Spain with the plan of convincing the King to end the encomienda system. Las Casas became a hacendado and slave owner, receiving a piece of land in the province of Cibao. Benjamin Keen likewise did not consider Las Casas to have had any substantial impact on the slave trade, which was well in place before he began writing. [5] In 1522, he tried to launch a new kind of peaceful colonialism on the coast of Venezuela, but this venture failed. After several months of negotiations Las Casas set sail alone; the peasants he had brought had deserted, and he arrived in his colony already ravaged by Spaniards.[44]. All the Indian slaves of the New World should be brought to live in these towns and become tribute paying subjects to the king. On Christmas Eve of 1515, Las Casas met the monarch and discussed the situation in the Indies with him; the king agreed to hear him out in more detail at a later date. Las Casas was devastated by the tragic result of his peasant migration scheme, which he felt had been thwarted by his enemies. [70], To settle the issues, a formal debate was organized, the famous Valladolid debate, which took place in 1550–51 with Sepúlveda and Las Casas each presenting their arguments in front of a council of jurists and theologians. Heurtant de front les colons et aussi les Indiens, échouant à convertir ceux-ci par la douceur, il est contraint de quitter son diocèse deux ans plus tard. [40], Las Casas suggested a plan where the encomienda would be abolished and Indians would be congregated into self-governing townships to become tribute-paying vassals of the king. [38] Only after Las Casas had left did the Hieronymites begin to congregate Indians into towns similar to what Las Casas had wanted. [46] To make matters worse, his detractors used the event as evidence of the need to pacify the Indians using military means. [65] Las Casas furthermore threatened that anyone who mistreated Indians within his jurisdiction would be excommunicated. The colonists, led by Diego Columbus, dispatched a complaint against the Dominicans to the King, and the Dominicans were recalled from Hispaniola.[21][22]. La controverse de Valladolid est un célèbre débat qui permet d'illustrer les deux visions qui s'opposent alors chez les Européens, entre ceux qui justifient l'asservissement des Amérindiens et ceux qui les défendent. The Dominicans had been the first to indict the encomenderos, and they continued to chastise them and refuse the absolution of confession to slave owners, and even stated that priests who took their confession were committing a mortal sin. 10 Lire là-dessus la thèse de José Cerra Dos Reis, Étude comparative des positions de Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas (o. p.) et du Père Antonio de Vieira (s. [45] He returned to Hispaniola in January 1522, and heard the news of the massacre. Las Casas and the commissioners traveled to Santo Domingo on separate ships, and Las Casas arrived two weeks later than the Hieronimytes. La controverse de Valladolid est un débat qui opposa essentiellement le dominicain Bartolomé de Las Casas et le théologien Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda en deux séances d'un mois chacune (l'une en 1550 et l'autre en 1551) au collège San Gregorio de Valladolid, mais principalement par échanges épistolaires.